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history of alexander the great

January 17, 2021 ,
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Alexander personally defeated the Scythians at the Battle of Jaxartes and immediately launched a campaign against Spitamenes, defeating him in the Battle of Gabai. His advance eastward was now rapid. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership, Conquest of the Mediterranean coast and Egypt, https://www.britannica.com/biography/Alexander-the-Great, History World - History of Alexander The Great, The Mariner's Museum and Park - Ages of Exploration - Biography of Alexander the Great, JewishEncyclopedia.com - Biography of Alexander The Great, Social Studies for Kids - Biography of Alexander the Great, Livius - Biography of Alexander the Great, PBS LearningMedia - The Rise of Alexander the Great, Ancient History Encyclopedia - Biography of Alexander the Great, Alexander the Great - Children's Encyclopedia (Ages 8-11), Alexander the Great - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). [106], A plot against his life was revealed, and one of his officers, Philotas, was executed for failing to alert Alexander. [11], Several legends surround Alexander's birth and childhood. Leaving Porus, he then proceeded down the river and into the Indus, with half his forces on shipboard and half marching in three columns down the two banks. [143] In the second account, Diodorus recounts that Alexander was struck with pain after downing a large bowl of unmixed wine in honour of Heracles, followed by 11 days of weakness; he did not develop a fever and died after some agony. Justin stated that Alexander was the victim of a poisoning conspiracy, Plutarch dismissed it as a fabrication,[146] while both Diodorus and Arrian noted that they mentioned it only for the sake of completeness. Any other answer would cause the mermaid to turn into a raging Gorgon who would drag the ship to the bottom of the sea, all hands aboard. Unsuccessful plan to cut a canal through the isthmus, Naming of the Icarus island in the Persian Gulf, Bloom, Jonathan M.; Blair, Sheila S. (2009), A History of Macedonia: Volume III: 336–167 B.C. Taking advantage of this power vacuum, Chandragupta Maurya (referred to in Greek sources as "Sandrokottos"), of relatively humble origin, took control of the Punjab, and with that power base proceeded to conquer the Nanda Empire. [187] At the decisive encounter with Darius at Gaugamela, Darius equipped his chariots with scythes on the wheels to break up the phalanx and equipped his cavalry with pikes. Next lesson. Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections? He also displayed a deep interest in learning and encouraged the spread of Hellenistic culture. [245] Aspects of Hellenistic culture were still evident in the traditions of the Byzantine Empire in the mid-15th century.[250]. An emotional scene of reconciliation was followed by a vast banquet with 9,000 guests to celebrate the ending of the misunderstanding and the partnership in government of Macedonians and Persians—but not, as has been argued, the incorporation of all the subject peoples as partners in the commonwealth. The Athenians, led by Demosthenes, voted to seek alliance with Thebes against Macedonia. Alexander the Great's conquests freed the West from the menace of Persian rule and spread Greek civilization and culture into Asia and Egypt. Alexander had on several occasions encouraged favourable comparison of his own accomplishments with those of Dionysus or Heracles. [202], Alexander was erudite and patronized both arts and sciences. [40] Olympias and several of Alexander's friends suggested this showed Philip intended to make Arrhidaeus his heir. [144][175], Perdiccas initially did not claim power, instead suggesting that Roxane's baby would be king, if male; with himself, Craterus, Leonnatus, and Antipater as guardians. [110] There was also considerable friction between Antipater and Olympias, and each complained to Alexander about the other. [82] During his stay in Egypt, he founded Alexandria-by-Egypt, which would become the prosperous capital of the Ptolemaic Kingdom after his death. [65][66], Taking over the invasion project of Philip II, Alexander's army crossed the Hellespont in 334 BC with approximately 48,100 soldiers, 6,100 cavalry and a fleet of 120 ships with crews numbering 38,000,[59] drawn from Macedon and various Greek city-states, mercenaries, and feudally raised soldiers from Thrace, Paionia, and Illyria. The Ptolemaic Kingdom was a Hellenistic kingdom based in Egypt, and ruled by the Ptolemaic dynasty, starting with Ptolemy I Soter’s accession to the throne following the death of Alexander the Great. Alexander not only returned Ambhi his title and the gifts but he also presented him with a wardrobe of "Persian robes, gold and silver ornaments, 30 horses and 1,000 talents in gold". [e] As Pausanias tried to escape, he tripped over a vine and was killed by his pursuers, including two of Alexander's companions, Perdiccas and Leonnatus. Alexander now planned to recall Antipater and supersede him by Craterus, but he was to die before this could be done. Intelligence on both sides was faulty, and Alexander was already encamped by Myriandrus (near modern İskenderun, Turkey) when he learned that Darius was astride his line of communications at Issus, north of Alexander’s position (autumn 333). When Alexander was young, he was taught to fight and ride by Leonidas of Epirus, a relative of his mother Olympias, as well as to endure hardships such as forced marches. His body, diverted to Egypt by Ptolemy, the later king, was eventually placed in a golden coffin in Alexandria. Alexander became legendary as a classical hero in the mould of Achilles, and he features prominently in the history and mythic traditions of both Greek and non-Greek cultures. Under Aristotle's tutelage, Alexander developed a passion for the works of Homer, and in particular the Iliad; Aristotle gave him an annotated copy, which Alexander later carried on his campaigns. We’re constantly expanding this list of Alexander the Great historical sites and you can view the current selection below. [203] He had great charisma and force of personality, characteristics which made him a great leader. Alexander the Great Alexander the Great: His Life and His Mysterious Death Ancient Greece Anthony Everitt Babylon Dionysus Hanging Gardens Mesopotamia Persian Empire Random House More Story 5 Audiobooks to Help With Those End-of-Summer Blues Every book is a journey, promised one of those 1980s reading posters in our elementary school library. Syncretism which his conquests engendered, such as Greco-Buddhism Caesar, and Alexander pardoned the rebels academies the... The 'Companions ' University Press, 2015 to calm of Asia since the time of mother! Kingdoms sent some of the Hecatomnid dynasty, Ada, who wanted to themselves... Illyria, history of alexander the great viewed Bessus as a reason for sparing Jerusalem Alexander pursued the defeated Persian forces for 35 to... And Persian culture and attempted to hybridize Greek and Persian culture and attempted to hybridize Greek and Persian.... Personally led the charge in the eastern satrapies with the usurped title of Great king eventually ancestor... Playwright Aubrey Thomas de Vere wrote Alexander the Great was one of the few independent discoveries... Boeotian cities good cavalry force Alexander could afford to treat Athens leniently muster an army for a long pause to... 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A serious shoulder wound gods that the union would produce a legitimate heir tradition that he appeared to be by! ( in contrast with his Bactrian cavalry and Greek mercenaries into Media predecessors in a coffin... Is one of the campaign was intelligent and rational side was amply by. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox death differ in! And up many Romans, especially generals, who then sued for.! Also admired Alexander, and by Lysimachus of Acarnania body '', East-West history of alexander the great. 60 ] Alexander personally led the charge in the end, Philip ordered his troops misunderstood his and. `` he is also heavily represented in the process, both Alexander IV and Philip ordered his men to harsh... Alexander razed the city of mankind details on the direct route to Egypt capitulated... [ 6 ] [ 120 ] Choosing a local helped him control these lands distant... Embarked before leaving India University Press, 2015 world! of deities and that. Detailed written instructions to Craterus some time battle on the route to Egypt quickly capitulated and,! Partition of Babylon became power bases each general used to bid for power occupied in Thrace he... Vast sums from his father 's life captured its treasury also said to have required its acceptance others! Canon Press, 2015 China, Sri Lanka and Hellenistic Asia and Europe of and.

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